Addison’s Disease In Dogs

Addison’s disease , also called hypoadrenocorticism, is an endocrine disorder that is caused by a lower than normal production of adrenal gland hormones. The adrenal glands are located near the kidneys, and are responsible for the production of hormones that control the salt, sugar, and water balance in the body. In Addison’s disease there is usually a deficiency of cortisol and a mineralocorticoid (aldosterone). The most common cause of Addison’s disease is destruction of the adrenal gland tissue by the pet’s own immune system. Cortisol is responsible for combating stress, while Aldosterone controls the water, sodium, potassium, and chloride concentrations in the body.

It can be challenging to diagnose Addison’s disease in dogs because of the vagueness of its symptoms, which is why it is often referred to as “The Great Imitator”. The most prominent symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, excessive thirst, weight loss, lethargy, poor appetite, shaking and muscle weakness, low heart rate and body temperature, depression, pain in the back end, and possible collapse. There may be no obvious signs of the disease until 90% of the adrenal cortex is no longer functioning.

Diagnosing Addison’s disease may include the presence of elevated potassium levels and abnormally low sodium levels, but this is not true in all dogs. The most reliable diagnostic test for this disease is an ACTH stimulation test, and usually is accompanied by a thorough medical history, physical examination, bloodwork, and a urinalysis. If the adrenal glands have deteriorated far enough, an acute episode may occur, called Addisonian crisis. When this occurs, it can cause a cease in kidney function, arrhythmia, and dangerously low blood pressure levels. Addisonian crisis is considered a medical emergency, and may result in death if not treated promptly.

Addison’s disease is an uncommon disorder in dogs, most frequently found in young to middle-aged and female dogs, and is extremely rare in cats. It is thought to be inherited in Leonbergers, standard poodles, and Nova Scotia duck tolling retrievers. Certain other breeds may also be predisposed, such as the Airedale, bearded collie, German shepherd dog, German shorthair pointer, Great Dane, St. Bernard, English springer spaniel, West Highland white terrier, wheaten terrier, and Portuguese water dog.

Treatment depends on the severity of the disease, your individual pet, and your veterinarian. Pets with Addison’s disease are treated with cortisol and mineralocorticoid replacement therapy. Since it may take some time to establish the correct levels of the hormones for each individual dog, routine blood work may be necessary initially to establish the maintenance dose. Some will need fluid and electrolyte support, and it is imperative that they are provided with plenty of drinking water. Discuss the treatment options with your veterinarian when your pet is diagnosed with this condition.

Addison's Disease In Dogs

Aggression In Dogs


Each year, more than 2% of the United States population suffers from a dog bite. That equals more than 4.3 million people! Canine aggression is not abnormal, but to better understand how to handle it, we need to understand the types of aggression and its causes.

Dog aggression, or threatening and/or harmful behavior towards another living creature, includes growling, nipping, snarling, snapping, lunging, and biting. When they display this behavior, they are only revealing normal species-typical behavior that is dangerous and unsuited with human lifestyle. There are various reasons why a dog will become aggressive towards their owner or complete strangers.

Sometimes aggression may stem from a medical problem unknown to you. It’s because of this that it is recommended to take your dog to a veterinarian when attempting to find out why they are being aggressive.
If a medical reason for the hostility isn’t found, your veterinarian will probably refer you to a behaviorist. A behaviorist will then acquire a behavioral history from you and then prescribe the recommended therapy.

The regularity and relentlessness of violent behavior may be reduced but, in most cases, aggression cannot be abolished entirely. Even if treatment seems successful, forever be on guard. Remember that the regularity and relentlessness of violent behavior may be reduced, but there is always a risk when keeping an aggressive dog. What is always to be your main concern is the safety of yourself and those around you!


Your veterinarian will do a thorough examination on your dog to find out if there’s a medical reason for their aggression. For example, a dog with a painful back may lash out when picked up. If there are no medical reasons, you’ll be referred to a behaviorist.

When seeing a behaviorist, you should be ready to spend a couple hours in a session. It’s a good idea to keep a written document of details about your pet’s behavior. It’s important to give the behaviorist as many accurate specifics as possible. You should make a note of:

  • What causes the aggression
  • How frequently it takes place
  • Who it is directed at
  • The exact behaviors
  • The dog’s body language and posture

It’s very helpful to the behaviorist to make a video of the dog in the act of their aggressive behavior, however, always be very careful not to get hurt. This and accurately answered questions about the behavior will assist them in their personalized treatment for your pet. They will also let you know their personal and professional opinion of the risk.

Aggression is influenced by several factors, including: genetic predisposition, early experience, maturation, sex, age, size, hormonal status, physiological state and external stimuli. Behaviorists use a classification system based on patterns of behavior and the circumstances in which they occur. This is done to determine the dog’s motivation and the cause of the behavior. The classification is as follows:

  • Dominance-related aggression is a very common type of canine aggression that behaviorists see. The aggressive action is directed towards other family members or pets. Since dogs are pack animals, they relate even us humans as members of their own species and pack and feel they need to establish an order to it.
  • Territorial aggression is seen in defense of a dog’s area (home, yard, room), property (toys, food), and even other pack members. It is usually directed towards those animals or people that exist outside of their pack.
  • Inter-male and inter-female aggression occurs more frequently when there are two or more adults of the same sex living in one household. It usually involves dominance or territorial quarrels.
  • Predatory aggression is usually directed towards other species, but sometimes can be cause by fast-moving stimulus like a bike or car. It’s caused by an instinctual need to hunt prey.
  • Pain-induced aggression is caused and directed towards a person or animal that causes pain. It frequently comes about when someone touches or even tries to touch a painful area on the dog.
  • Fear-induced aggression occurs when a frightened dog is approached. When a dog feels like it can’t escape, or has been exposed to severe punishment, it may resort to fear biting. This aggression can also be stimulated by active, unpredictable children.
  • Maternal aggression can occur when a female with a new litter or even in false pregnancy feels threatened.
  • Redirected aggression basically means that a dog will be aggressively motivated by one thing, then turn around and take it out on another. For example, if a dog on a leash is lunging and barking, it may turn on the owner that is attempting to pull it away from the stimuli. Dogs that are dominant will often redirect aggression to those in the pack they feel are inferior.


Each case of aggressive behavior in dogs in different. The treatment will vary depending on the diagnosis, your capability, compliance, and even your schedule. It may involve one or a combination of drug therapy, surgery (for instance spaying/neutering), avoidance and management (such as a head halter), and behavior modification techniques (like desensitization and counter-conditioning).

Always be aware of the risk that, even with successful treatment, the aggressive behavior may return. The best to hope for is the reduction of the probability of aggression. There are benefits and risks you must weigh when keeping a dog that has shown signs of aggression.


If your dog’s behavior is erratic it may be a good idea to purchase a basket style muzzle until you are able to get professional help. Physical punishment is NOT a good way to train your dog in ANY case. This can increase the intensity of your dog’s aggression and may result in serious injury. Avoid all interactions that you know trigger your dog’s aggression. Evading problems may involve:

  • Keeping your dog in a separate room when children or visitors are present
  • Housing and feeding them away from each other if they are fighting
  • Removing anything your dog may be defensive of, like toys or bones

Do not permit children to have contact with your dog unsupervised. Kids should be taught to avoid bothering dogs that are resting, chewing on a bone, or eating. They should never be allowed to hurt or tease dogs.

An easy strategy is to keep your dog on a leash all the time. At home, you might want to attach a thin nylon leash to their collar that your dog can comfortably drag. That way you will be able to get control of them safer. Indoor leashes can even be attached to head collars for even greater control. Do not try to get in the middle if your dogs end up fighting with each other. Interrupt the aggression using water, a loud noise, a blanket or spray.

veterinary advice

Dealing With Aggression In Cats


Bearing in mind their size, domestic cats can make dreadful enemies. Cats have five effective attack weapons, including mouth that can open widely equipped with sharp teeth, and four dexterous paws bearing needle-sharp claws. These weapons, combined with explosive speed and the limberness of a contortionist, can make restraining reluctant cats more difficult than herding these independent animals.

As every veterinarian knows, it is far better to avoid a cat’s anger than it is to confront it once the cat’s enraged. Therefore, the approach of nominal physical restraint and slow, placid handling is the best one to use when treating cats. If the cats temper has already reached its boiling point, it is best to give them time to settle down before continuing any therapy. However, sedatives or full physical restraint may be needed if it is important to continue immediately.


Types of aggression differ with varieties of species. Aggression can be described as maternal, irritable, territorial, sexual, predatory, fear-induced, and instrumental (as a way to achieve a goal). Classifications of aggression that have been more recently added to this list include pain-induced aggression, the always offensive petting-induced aggression, and idiopathic aggression (of unknown cause).

Another way of classifying aggression is into affective and predatory types. Affective, or emotional, aggression refers to a sudden mood change, and predatory aggression refers to the business of predation, i.e. procuring prey by hunting and killing, which is comparatively unemotional. There are also two types of affective aggression; defensive and offensive. Defensive aggression is in response to a threat, whether real or perceived, and is either entirely self-protective, or a combination of self-protective and maternal if a litter is involved. Offensive aggression indicates an animal lashing out at another animal, most likely unprovoked, in order to achieve some “selfish” goal.


  • Ears positioned sideways or forward
  • Pupils slightly rounded or very thin
  • Body stance with the shoulders lower than the rump giving a slanting-forward impression
  • Eyes engaged on the target, slight side-to-side head motion
  • Low pitched growl
  • Tail tip swishing from side to side. Tail held horizontal or vertically down


  • Ears held flat against the head pointing backwards
  • Widely dilated pupils
  • Piloerection – hair on the entire cat will stand on end, puffing them up to make them appear larger
  • Body stance is crouching or the back is arched
  • Tail to the side or curved under
  • Hissing and spitting
  • Tense, unsheathed claws


  • No emotional changes besides extreme attentiveness
  • Stalking/hunting behavior
  • Body stance is crouching, leading to springing
  • Gripping with claws and biting

Cats have always been considered lone, independent creatures, but it has newly been accepted that they can live socially and that some may become the “alpha” cats. In order to accomplish and hold this title, they must be physically strong and possess a willful personality. This is why aggression is a natural behavior for the cat and was required for survival of the cats’ wild ancestors.

The aforementioned type of aggression called “petting-induced” aggression is also a form of hostility found in a cat with “dominant, alpha cat syndrome”. This type of aggression may be expressed at home toward compliant owners during calm petting sessions. It also involves biting the owner over property such as food, toys, or resting place, as an attention-getting mechanism, and a way to rebel if an owner is trying to control the cat.

Offensive aggression in cats is purposeful and instinctual. Variations on the idea of offensive aggression include territorial aggression (used to protect an established territory or possession), maternal aggression (used to protect new kittens), and sexual aggression (usually between two males in competition for a female).

Defensive, or fear aggression, happens more often in cats that haven’t been raised with appropriate exposure to other cats or people at a formative time of their development. However, it can also occur in cats that have had negative exposure to people or other cats. It can easily be directed towards an offending person or another cat, and is another fairly common form of feline aggression.

Although predatory aggression has no social or self-protective function and is not connected with a major mood change, it qualifies as a type of aggression because is causes death or injury to another. There are two phases of predatory aggression in the wild; the appetitive phase and the consummary phase. The appetitive phase is the stalking, hunting, and capturing of prey, and the consummary phase is the eating of prey. Kittens and cats express predatory aggression when pouncing on hands, feet, and toys. It’s also displayed in cats when they stare longingly at a pet fish or birds outside your window.

Lastly, pathological aggression may just take place out of context because of minor stimuli. This type of aggression may be largely due to health issues like infections, partial seizures, lack of nutrition, and hyperthyroidism (an overactive thyroid gland). Before attempting any behavior modification, the medical causes of aggression need to be ruled out by your veterinarian.

Aggression In Cats

10 Ways To Prepare Your Pet For Boarding


Boarding a pet can be nerve-racking for both the owner and the animal. Here are ten simple tips to help keep things smooth and simple:

  1. Interview the Facility – Call the boarding facility and ask them questions like how long they have been in business and what their references are. Kennels will let you tour them as well. Pay a surprise visit to one before you schedule your pet for boarding. Make mental notes on whether the place is clean, if there are any bad odors, and if there are messes left in the cages. Remember to ask to see where the animals are walked and look for signs that they seem happy and comfortable.
  2. Ask for Recommendations – Call around and talk to different places. Don’t just go for the cheapest kennel. Sometimes you get what you pay for. Ask friends and family if they’ve even boarded their pets, their experiences, and what they think of the one they go to.
  3. Find Out Kennel Requirements – Be prepared and ask about any vaccines required for boarding and if they need a copy of vaccine records. Also find out if they allow you bring your own treats or food. See if they allow you to leave any personal items like a favorite bed or blanket, or toys.
  4. Learn About the Kennel Staff – Find out if the attendant is the same one that will be seeing your pet for most of their stay and see what experience they have with animals. Are they just doing a job or do they care about your pet?
  5. The Kennel Schedule – Ask the staff how often pets are normally walked, fed, or played with. See if your pet will have any kind of interaction with other animals. You may or may not want that.
  6. Feeding Options – It may be a good idea to bring in your pets regular food and request that the staff feed the usual amount you feed them. A sudden change in diet may upset your pet’s stomach, causing diarrhea or vomiting. Being boarded can already cause stress enough to create a bit of gastrointestinal upset. It’s good to make sure you don’t change anything else you don’t have to.
  7. Your Contact Information – Plan for the unexpected. Make sure the facility has the most accurate information to be able to get in contact with you in case of an emergency.
  8. Emergency Instructions – Give the kennel the appropriate instructions in case an emergency does occur. Some kennels will bring pets to certain veterinarians or hospitals in an emergency situation. If you want them to use your regular veterinarian, you need to let them know and give them the proper information to get in contact with your vet, such as name, hours, and phone number. If care is required and the kennel can’t get in contact with you, make sure they have the authorization to make charges if necessary. You don’t want your pet “waiting” for emergency medical attention because the doctor requires credit card authorization.
  9. Medical History – Get a copy of your pets past medical records, such as shots, medications, medical problems, diagnosed conditions, tags and microchip numbers. It’s also good to let the staff know of any personality issues like cage aggression, dog/cat aggression, and a tendency to bolt.
  10. Special Instructions – If your pet has any special instructions, such as medical treatment when boarding and dietary restrictions, make sure you communicate this clearly with the staff. Leave written instructions as well to avoid any confusion. As always, give them your most updated contact information so you can be reached for any questions regarding your pets care.

Boarding Your Pet

10 Ways To Help An Arthritic Pet


Arthritis, or the inflammation or swelling in a joint, can be caused by many things; instability of the immediate ligaments and tendons, unusual bone or joint development, injury or damage to the joint, injury caused by the immune system, or an infection. While anti-inflammatory medications are common treatments for arthritis, another process involves protecting the joints cartilage and “nourishing” the joint. Here are ten tips to help keep your arthritic pet comfortable.

  1. Slip-free Flooring. Place stable rugs or carpeting in areas your pet frequents that are hardwood or tile. This makes it so they can have more sure traction and, therefore, balance. It’s very easy for your arthritic pet to lose their footing and cause injury on these slippery floors.
  2. A Soft Bed. Some beds in pet stores and online are made especially for pets with arthritis, like, hammocks, waterbeds, and beds that come with a lot of extra cushioning. This is because soft beds help support joints and bones, making your pet more comfortable. This is particularly important in lean pets in which bony prominences can continuously rub on hard surfaces.
  3. Ramps or Cubes. Specially designed ramps and cubes can be made of wood or plastic and are offered in pet catalogs, stores, and websites. Furniture and stairs can be complicated obstacles for your aging friend. Cubes and ramps can help pets securely get into or out of bed, climb stairs, or get in and out of your vehicle.
  4. Pain Management. Medication for pain management can make a big, positive difference in the life of an arthritic pet. NSAIDs, or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, can suppress pain and inflammation by reducing production of the class of compounds called prostaglandins. Never treat your pet with drugs at home without seeing your veterinarian. Your vet can help you find out if medication could benefit your pet and what they can safely take.
  5. Peace & Quiet. Some pets, as they age, lose their tolerance and patience. Painful joints can make it harder for them to enjoy playing. Always supervise any playtime with children and, if you feel uncomfortable, consider restricting play from young children. Even big events like holidays can be more distressing for a pet with arthritic pain. They may really want to join in the festivities even though they are painful, injuring themselves or making things worse. It may be a good idea to limit an arthritic dogs time as the center of attention.
  6. Massage. In humans and animals, massage can increase flexibility, circulation, calmness and a general sense of wellness. You can try carefully massaging your pet yourself, but there are also professional animal massage therapists that can help provide your pet a more comprehensive treatment.
  7. Dietary Therapy and Weight Control. Obesity can make arthritis more of a problem. Weight loss will not only make your pet healthier, but it also reduces the amount of work already painful bones and joints have to do. There are also diets out there formulated just to help arthritic animals. Omega-3 fatty acids, glucosamine, and chondroitin sulfate integrated into a pet’s diet have been shown to help with arthritis by maintaining weight, reducing pain and improving mobility.
  8. Exercise. Having your pet exercise can help strengthen the ligaments and muscles, reducing the probability and risk of injury. First, see your veterinarian so they can help you determine if regular exercise will help your pet, and what kind of program is best.
  9. Patience. Pets with arthritis are going to need extra time to climb stairs, walk, get in and out of vehicles, and even stand. Be patient with them and don’t rush them. Physically support them or give them extra time to get themselves around.
  10. Grooming. Pets with arthritis have a hard time keeping themselves as clean as they normally would, especially in places that are hard to reach. Make up for it and don’t neglect their grooming. You can help them out with a sanitary trim around the rear end. Also, simply brushing them regularly will keep away tangles and mats that can hurt fragile older skin.

10 ways to help an arthritic pet